Gorakhpur (Hindi: गोरखपुर, Urdu: گورکھپور) is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division and of Baba Gorakshanath.
Gorakhpur is famous as a religious centre: the city was home to Buddhist, Hindu, Jain and Sikh saints and is named after the medieval saint Gorakshanath. Gorakhnath Temple is still the seat of the Nath sect. It is also the Birth place of the great saint Paramhansa Yogananda. The city is also home to many historic Buddhist sites and the Gita Press, a publisher of Hindu religious texts.
In the 20th century, Gorakhpur was a focal point in the Indian independence movement. Today, the city is also a business centre, hosting the headquarters of the North Eastern Railways, previously known as Bengal Nagpur Railways and an industrial area, GIDA [Gorakhpur Development Authority] 15 km from the old town.
Geographical Area 3,483.8 km2
Total Population(2008) 8,156,610
Sex Ratio (2001) 959
Rural Population ( 80.40% ) (2001)3,030,865
Urban Population ( 19.60% ) (2001)738,591
Total Literates ( 58.45% ) (2008) 22,429,538
Origin of name: The city and district of Gorakhpur are named after a renowned ascetic saint, Gorakshanath, the chief disciple of the yogi Matsyendranath. Together, Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath founded the Nath Sampradaya line of saints. Gorakhnath Temple is said to stand on the spot where Gorakshanath practiced Hatha Yoga to develop self-control.
Gorakhpur is the North Eastern Headquarters of Indian Railways, It is the biggest Broad Gauge railway junction in North India.
History: In ancient times the geographical area of Gorakhpur included the modern districts of Basti, Deoria, Azamgarh. According to Vedic writings, the earliest known monarch ruling over this region with his capital at Ayodhya was Iksvaku, founder of the solar dynasty. The solar dynasty produced a number of kings; Rama of the Ramayana is most well-known. The entire region was an important centre of Aryan culture and civilization, a part of the famous kingdom of Koshala, one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (states) in 6th century BCE India.
Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, renounced his princely clothing at the confluence of the rivers Rapti and Rohini, near Gorakhpur, before setting out on his quest of truth in 600 BCE. The city is also associated with the travels of Lord Buddha's contemporary Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism.
After the Iksvaku dynasty was conquered by Magadha's Nanda Dynasty in the 4th century BC, Gorakhpur became in turn part of the Maurya, Shunga, Kushana, Gupta and Harsha empires. The great emperor of India Chandragupta maurya belonged to Moriyas, a Kshatriya (warrior) clan of a little ancient republic of Pippalivana located between Rummindei in the Nepali Tarai and Kasia in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
In the 10th century, the Tharu king Mausen of Madan Singh ruled over Gorakhpur city and the adjoining area. Gorakhpur was also birth place of King Vikas Sankrityayan.
In medieval times, the city was home to the medieval Hindu saint Gorakshanath, who gave the city its name. The date of Gorakshanath's birth has not yet been settled, but he probably lived in the twelfth century. The site of his samādhi (ecstasy) at Gorakhpur attracts a large number of pilgrims every year.
In the 12th century, the Gorakhpur region, as much of northern India, was conquered by the Muslim ruler Muhammad Ghori. The region remained under the influence of Muslim rulers, such as Qutb-ud-din Aybak and Bahadur Shah, for some centuries. In the early 16th century, the mystic poet and famous saint Kabir lived and worked in Maghar, a village 20 km from Gorakhpur, where his burial place still attracts many pilgrims.
On Akbar's reorganisation of the empire in the 16th century, Gorakhpur gave its name to one of the five Sarkars (administrative units) in the province of Awadh.
Gorakhpur came under direct British control in 1803. It was one of major centers of the 1857 uprising, and later played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
Gorakhpur district was the scene of the Chauri Chaura incident of February 4, 1922, which was a turning point in the history of India's freedom struggle. Enraged by police atrocities, a crowd of 2,000 people burnt down the Chauri-Chaura Police Station, killing nineteen policemen. In response to this violence, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-Cooperation Movement that he had launched in 1920 and fasted for 21 days, until he was satisfied that all Non-Cooperation Movement activities had ceased. It was in Gorakhpur Jail that Ram Prasad Bismil was hanged for taking active part in the fight against the British rule.
In 1934, an earthquake (8.1 on the Richter scale) caused much damage in the city.
Two other important events in the district took place in 1942, shortly after the famous Quit India Resolution was proclaimed on August 8. On August 9, Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested and tried in this district; he spent the next three years in prison. At Doharia kala (in Sahjanwa Tehsil) on August 23, a protest meeting was held against the British Government. Government forces opened fire unprovoked, killing nine and injuring hundreds. A Shaheed Smarak memorial stands on the spot today.
It is also the birth place of Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan.It is also known for being the head of north eastern railways(NER). Late Sachindra Nath Sanyal ( Very few people to have undertaken Transportation for Life twice) , who was the founder of Hindusthan Republican Army, which later on transformed into INA (Azad Hind Fauz) was founded by him. He spent his last life as a destitute, neglected by all, in a place in the city, when he was stricken by TB. The place today is known as Betiahata. A large Multistory residential building stands today on the spot, owned by Sahara. Also Karma Bhumi of Late Jitendra Nath Sanyal, the Revolutionarist, who spent seven years in jail , against The British, was associated in lahore Conspiracy case, written a book on Sardar Bhagat Singh was imprisoned by the British .
Geography: It is located on the bank of river rapti which is interconnected through many other small rivers. There is also a big lake called "Ramgarh Tal", which has its own story of formation. It has many other small villages located around the city. In the outer skirts of the city farming is very much prevalent. It has a good rainfall every year. It is also the way to the famous tourist spot and pilgrimage site Kushinagar, where the Buddha died. Many tourists come here to visit this place.
Economy: Gorakhpur may be regarded as one of the many Indian cities stepping foot on to the road of development. With a good geographical location and sub-urban to urban background, the city's economy is definitely on a rise. The city is famous for handwoven fabric made on a Hathkargha, a hand-operated loom, and Terracota products. The city witnessed growth in industrial sector with development of GIDA at Sahjanwa Road. There are branches of all nationalized banks as well as of private banks like ICICI, HDFC, AXIS and IDBI Bank in the city. DDU University, BRD Medical College and MMM Engineering College are there from decades. There are also some newly opened private colleges like Institute of Technology and Management, GIDA and a Purvanchal Dental College, GIDA.The city also has some good Schools famous in nearby regions. Among them major are Saraswati Shishu Mandir Sr. Secondary School, St. Joseph's School, Carmel School, N.E.R. Sr. Secondary School, Little Flower School, Central Academy, St. Jude's School and St. Paul's School,centre of excellence in computer hardware networking"JETKING-INDIA'S NO.1 HARDWARE NETWORKING INSTITUTE" etc.
High water mark of the city, "Golghar", in almost the geographical center of the city includes several major shops, hotels, banks, and restaurants, as well as the Baldev Plaza and City shopping malls. Baldev Plaza is the oldest and largest shopping mall in the region. Other Malls, such as Crossroads mall, can also be found in adjoining Baxipur area. City Mall holds a 3 screen SRS Multiplex which is an attraction for movie lovers. Buxipur area accounts for one of the biggest book markets of North Eastern Uttar Pradesh.
There is also a center for Naturopathy here, called 'Aarogya Mandir' situated enroute to Chargawan.
Literature: The mystic poet and famous saint Kabir (1440-1518) lived and worked in Maghar, a village 20 km from Gorakhpur. Here, most of his beautiful poems, urging his countrymen to live in peace and religious harmony, were composed. Kabir's burial place in Maghar attracts a large number of pilgrims.
Munshi Premchand (1880-1936), one of India's great Hindi novelists, lived in Gorakhpur. The house where he lived and wrote still stands in a park named Munshi Premchand Park.
Firaq Gorakhpuri (1896-1982) (Raghupati Sahay), the famous Urdu poet, grew up in Gorakhpur, where his childhood home still stands. He later moved to Allahabad where he was a professor of English at Allahabad University.
Urdu poet Mohd. Umar Khan Umar, a disciple of renowned Shair Dagh Dehelvi, also belonged to Gorakhpur. A collection of his selected poetry entitled Bada-i- Kuhna (The Old Wine) has recently been published.
Gorakhpur is also the home of the Gita Press one of biggest the publication group who not only publish many holy books but also one of GITA (ancient literature which describes mahabharta period when arjun came in battle field and lord krishna told him the duties of warrior, human and family) first in the world as a book before this Gita was only on the toungs of scholar Brahmins, the world famous publisher of Hindu religious books, including 'Kalyan' magazine. The publishing company is located in a building with marble walls inscribed with the 18 chapters of the Bhagavad Gita, and hung with paintings depicting the lives of Rama and Krishna.
Gorakhnath Temple, a monastery dedicated to saint Gorakshanath.
Lord Buddha Sangrahalaya, a Buddhist museum.
Maghar - The place where saint Kabir died.
Kushinagar - The place where Lord Buddha died.
Gorakhpur, Bhudiya Maai Mandir
Gorakhpur Lehra Devi Mandir, Farenda now known as Ananda Nagar at Gorakhpur Sonauli Road
Gorakhpur Tarkulha devi mandir, Gorakpur
Gita Vatika Mandir
Geeta Press, GhantagharGeeta press
Shani Dev Mandir, Humayunpur
Vishnu Mandir, Shahpur
Shiv Mandir, Shakti Nagar Colony - Rustampur.
shiv mandir jafra bazar, bare kazipur
FCI (Now closed)
Azam Rubber Products (ARP) Ltd., AL-9, Sector-13, GIDA, Gorakhpur
Lari Textiles and Dyeing Industries Pvt. Ltd, GIDA, Gorakhpur
Indian Glycol Limited (IGL), GIDA, Gorakhpur
Hi-Tech Medical Products, GIDA, Gorakhpur
Bee Jee Polytex Ltd, Ind. Area (Yarns Manufacturing Unit)
Jalan Concast Ltd., Bargadawa (Iron Bars Mfg. Unit)
Tulsi Surgical Devices Pvt. Ltd., GIDA
Jalaan Rolling Mill
Jalan Jee Polytex Limited
Priya Rai Chemicals
A.B.R. Petro Products Ltd., AL-1, sector-15, GIDA, Gorakhpur.
Places of interest
1.Sahid Smarak (Martyr Memorial) of Chauri Chaura reminding the memories of patriotism of 1922.
Taramandal Planetarium (founded by then chief minister Late Sri Vir Bahadur Singh)
Tarkullaha DEVI (Indian great warrior of freedom Shaeed Bandhu Singh was sentenced to death by English government here)
Munshi Premchand Park, Betia Hata
Hanuman Mandir and Sai Temple, Betia Hata
Vinod Van - Mini Zoo
Ram Garh Tal - A Lake
The Indian Air Force
The GRD (Gorkha Recruitment Depot)
Water Park, Near Tara Mandal (Biggest Water Park in UP, Under Construction)
The three-wheeled, pedal powered cycle rickshaw is the basic mode of transport in the city. The city is in a growing stage and lacks the infrastructure for a city wide bus service.
Gorakhpur mahanagar bus seva and auto rickshaw and private taxis are the allied mode of transport in the city. The past year has seen encouraging improvement in the quality of auto rickshaw service. The city is also served by a municipal bus service, auto rickshaws and taxicabs. City has a sometimes extreme weather conditions usually in rains but usually its good.
Tourists flock to Gorakhpur to head on to "Kushinagar", the place where Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana (final death). It is located at a distance of 52 km from Gorakhpur, on NH 28.
Gorakhpur railway station is the headquarters of NE Railway. It connects to almost every major city in India. Direct trains connect to Pune (Poona), Chennai, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Amritsar, Jammu, Guwahati and other distant parts of the nation. All major cities of India are directly connected by trains through Gorakhpur. Being the headquarters, the railway station offers all the necessary facilities that a Class A railway station should provide.
Main roads intersect at Gorakhpur, including NH 28 and 29. Some important distances are: Kushinagar 50 km, Lucknow 276 km, Varanasi 231 km, Allahabad 339 km, Agra 624 km, Delhi 783 km and Mumbai 1690 km. Regular buses are available for most of these cities. Considerable improvement in this aspect is expected after the completion of the Golden Quadrilateral road project that enhances Gorakhpur's road connectivity.
Gorakhpur has an Airport & Its located 6 km (East) from the city centre. It caters to Indian Air Force Related Traffic. At Present there are few Domestic Airline including JETLITE AIRWAYS , kingfisher , spicejet which is allowed to operate Civilian Transportation Services at the Airport due to some possible security consideration. Flights services to Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Allhabad etc. Gorakhpur is also host to many tourist who use it as a channel to travel to Lord Budha's palace. There are weekly five days flights from Delhi to Gorakhpur (plan in advance as there is a rush for these flights)!!
Malls in city
The City Mall, Park Road - Golghar (SRS 3 Screens Cinema)
Cross Roads-The Mall, Bank road.
Hotel in city
Hotel Shivoy, Town Hall. Ph:0551-2338448,2333696,2343301
Hotel Clarks Inn, Civil Lin
Hotel Park regency, Golghar.
Hotel President, Golghar
Hotel Yark, Golghar
Hotel Chawdhary, Vijay Chowk.
. Retiring rooms are available at railway station
Main cinema halls
Shree Talkies (Not running presently)
SRS Cinemas (in city mall)
United Talkies (reserved for bhojpuri films)
Maya Talkies (closed, converting into cineplex)
Prabha Picture Palace (Peppeganj) (out of city)
Main Schools, Colleges and Universities
Army School , kunraghat
Metropolitan school , sariya ,medical college road
Sarswati Shishu Mandir, pakkibagh(estb. 1952)
Govt. Jublee Inter College
Pillars Public School
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University
Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College
Institute of Technology & Management, GIDA
B.R.D. Medical College
Purvanchal Dental College
St. Andrew's College (Est. 1898)
D.A.V. Degree College
M.G. Degree College]]
Carmel Girls Inter College
St. Joseph's School
St. Paul's School
St. Jude's School, Mohaddipur, Gorakhpur
Little Flower School
Springer Public School
Amar Singh Public School - Alinagar , Gorakhpur
G.N.National Public School
Divine Public School
Mahatma Gandhi Inter College
Government Jubilee Inter College
Sarswati Shishu Mandir S.S. School, Surajkund
Mian Sahab Islamia Inter college, Buxipur
Islamia P.G college, Buxipur
M.P. Inter College
N.E.Railway Sr. Secondary School
N.E.Railway Boys Inter College
N.E.Railway Girls Inter College
Marwar Inter College
FCI Inter College
A.D. Girls Inter College
Virendra Nath Ganguly Memorial School
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya
Metropolitan Public School
Jyoti Higher Secondry School, Shastri Nagar
DOEACC Gorakhpur, MMMEC Campus.